The Complexity of Sand Mining in Coastal Regions of India: Implications on Livelihoods, Marine and Riverine Environment, Sustainable Development, and Governance

Baker Matovu1,*, Jerome Lugumira Sebadduka2, Expedito Nuwategeka3, Yasin Bbira4
Author Information & Copyright
1Amrita School for Sustainable Development (AST), Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham/2016 YALOS Alumnus, Kollam, India 690525, India.
2National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kampala lot 17/19, NEMA House, 21 Jinja Road, Uganda.
3Faculty of Education and Humanities, Gulu University, Gulu 166, Uganda.
4Natural Resources Department, Mityana District Local Government, Mityana 140, Uganda.
*Corresponding Author: Baker Matovu, Amrita School for Sustainable Development (AST), Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham/2016 YALOS Alumnus, Kollam, India 690525, India. Phone: +917510950518. E-mail:

© Copyright 2024 Korea Maritime Institute. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Jul 21, 2023; Revised: Nov 08, 2023; Accepted: Jan 29, 2024

Published Online: Mar 05, 2024


Currently, there is a sprawl sand mining mainly due to the demand for construction materials. However, in most jurisdictions, several negative impacts of sand mining are evident but less reported especially in developing countries. This study used a systematic review method to fill this gap in literature to document the impacts of sand mining and its implications on sustainable development and governance with a focus on India. Findings documented increasing threats on the environment (marine, river channel and ecosystems) as well as on livelihood which grossly impacts Agenda 2030. To fill this gap, we recommended development of integrated sand mining management approaches and legal mechanisms from micro and macro levels. This could be through local governance actions/initiatives at micro levels. At macro-level, research in the use of alternative material to replace sand and designing of strong transnational governance mechanisms to monitor the sand mining value chains could be paramount.

Keywords: Sand Mining; Coastal Regions; Livelihoods; Marine Ecosystems and Sustainable Governance; India